Diabetics Care

Type 2 Diabetes

The Diabetics Care Tips

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, with 90% of cases. It usually manifests in adulthood, in individuals 40 years of age and older. Unfortunately, it is also observed in younger and younger people , due in part to the increase in the rate of obesity. In populations at risk, it can even appear from childhood.

In type 2 diabetes, two phenomena are generally present:

resistance of the body to the action of insulin;

decreased insulin production.

Hyperglycemia follows, that is to say an increase in the level of sugar in the blood above normal values.

In the long term, high blood sugar can lead to the development of certain  complications , including in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels.

Risk factors

There are many causes of type 2 diabetes, and in many cases it is a combination of several factors that causes the disease to develop. For example:

Gender: men are more vulnerable than women;

Age: the risk increases as we get older;

Excess weight;

The high waist circumference, that is to say the fat accumulated around the abdomen;

Physical inactivity ;

Bad eating habits;

High blood pressure;

Abnormally high blood sugar results in the past;

For women, having given birth to a baby weighing more than 4.1 kg (9 pounds);

Heredity;

Ethnic origin: indigenous, African, Asian, Latin American, etc.

A low level of education.

Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

Only a blood test analyzed in the laboratory can make a diagnosis of diabetes. 

Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

Only a blood test analyzed in the laboratory can make a diagnosis of diabetes. 

Prevention

Good news! It has been shown that changing your lifestyle can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by nearly 60%, or at least delay the onset, as well as the associated complications.

Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents

Type 2 diabetes has long been attributed to adults. But over the past 20 years, the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has been on the rise worldwide.

Children of certain ethnic groups are more affected: Africans, Arabs, Asians, Hispanics and indigenous people. In Canada, an estimated 44% of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are Aboriginal.

Symptoms

The symptoms are similar to those found in adults. Sometimes there are no symptoms at diagnosis.

Screening

According to the 2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes in Canada from Diabetes Canada, screening should be done every 2 years in children and adolescents in the following cases:

1. Presence of at least 3 of the following risk factors in prepubertal children, or at least 2 risk factors after puberty:

Obesity, i.e. a BMI above the 95th percentile

Belonging to a high-risk population: Indigenous, African, Arab, Asian, Hispanic or South Asian

Presence of type 2 diabetes in the immediate family (brother, sister, father, mother)

Presence of gestational diabetes in the mother during the gestation of the child

Signs of insulin resistance: acanthosis nigricans , hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome

2. Abnormal blood glucose values ​​(abnormal fasting blood sugar or glucose intolerance ) detected during a blood test

3. Taking atypical antipsychotic drugs

Measurement of glycated hemoglobin (A1C) alone is not recommended for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in young people. It should be combined with fasting blood sugar and / or an oral hyperglycemia test (OGTT). Otherwise, the other diagnostic criteria  are the same as in adults.

Treatment

For the treatment of diabetes, the child or adolescent must be taken care of by a care team including various health professionals.

Usually, the initial treatment is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as type 2 diabetes in children is mainly linked to being overweight . You have to involve the whole family if you want to achieve lasting results.

If this change in lifestyle is not effective, then oral medication and sometimes insulin will be considered. In some people, it may be necessary to temporarily start insulin at the start of treatment if the child has symptoms of severe hyperglycemia at the time of diagnosis.

Adherence to treatment is important to prevent early complications.

Prevention

The prevention of type 2 diabetes relies on modifiable risk factors, mainly the prevention of obesity , which involves an active lifestyle and a healthy diet.

Children of certain ethnic groups are more affected: Africans, Arabs, Asians, Hispanics and indigenous people. In Canada, an estimated 44% of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are Aboriginal.

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